Implementation process

By looking at the the activities, actors and methods or approaches used, this section will provide a better understanding of the implementation process of the MLS approach. We will describe the point of departure, who was involved (when, why and how) and what key decisions were made when and why.

Point of departure of FRM strategies

Geraardsbergen web final.png

Figure 1: Initial and desired scores to reach per layer for this pilot (Transnational Monitoring and Evaluation Report, 2020)

To measure the impact of FRAMES on improving the flood resilience of pilot areas, communities and authorities both a baseline and final monitoring survey have been conducted. The surveys were completed by pilot managers in consultation with key pilot stakeholders. The baseline survey included questions about the actual situation in 2017 (before the project started) and expectations for 2020 (see figure 1). The final survey contained similar questions, but about the actual situation in 2020 and expected situation for 2025, five years after the pilot projects are finished. All the scores for both surveys along with can be found in chapter 8 of the Transnational Monitoring and Evaluation Report.

Stakeholders involved

The primary stakeholders are citizens and companies located in flood-prone zones (as defined by the flood risk maps). In addition, the following stakeholders are identified:

  • Public actors: The municipality of Geraardsbergen
  • Citizens: Inhabitants of neighbouring floodable and non-floodable areas
  • Private actors: farmers of neighbouring floodable and non-floodable areas. The initial plan was to involve more private actors. Following the delimitation of the focus zone in Moerbeke-Viane, however, no other private actors were invited.

Role of key actors

Public actors: The collaboration with Geraardsbergen started later, in September 2018. Geraardsbergen was originally not part of the project pilot but showed a very positive collaborative stance, probably due to the fact that the city already had taken participative measures with local inhabitants and that because it is more often subject to flooding.

Citizens: Citizens gave their input about their view of the area, points of interest, areas that need improvement and potential green and blue areas. 

Main activities

At the start of the project, the Province of East Flanders and the UGhent developed a participation strategy including a stakeholder analysis whom they wanted to reach, and how to involve them. There were three target groups: flood-prone citizens (1), wider community (2) and local governments (3). 

  • Flood prone citizens: Flood prone citizens were explicitly contacted through 'village councils'. These councils consisted of local engaged citizens and have been taking care of flood planning in their community following the 2016 floods. The councils helped spread information through their network.
  • Wider community: Local citizens in floodable areas were contacted a first time at a market to get input about their viewpoint on the possible future development of the area.
  • Local authorities: The municipality of Geraardsbergen was contacted in September 2018 and showed great interest in participating in a research-by-design project.





















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