Lessons learnt AP
Two pilots in Denmark, Assens and Vejle, applied the Dynamic Planning Approach (adapted from the Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways approach) to decide and prioritize MLS actions in order to make both cities flood proof. These are the lessons learnt from those pilots.
Combining MLS with adaptive planning creates robust long term visions. The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach was combined with the MLS approach to make long term development plans towards flood proof cities. This process helped municipalities define and prioritize diverse FRM decisions related to flood protection, flood prevention via spatial planning and preparation and emergency planning. By combining the approaches, it was possible to figure out the benefits for long term planning since the synergetic combination of FRM measures from each of the MLS layers will make the planning more robust in the long term. For this to work though, the DAPP should be adjusted to the local context first before developing action plans. The Danish pilots did this by, amongst others, preparing a bassline study of the local challenges and performing a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) of the chosen adaptation pathways.
Criteria needed to consider when applying the DAPP approach. The DAPP approach (a) increases flood risk awareness of municipalities about the relevance of combining different measures to reduce flood risk; (b) increases the collaboration between stakeholder (e.g. in both pilots the collaboration has increased between the municipalities and the Danish Coastal Authority, as well as between the different departments of each municipality, climate adaptation, urban planning, water safety departments). Moreover (c) it should be adjusted depending on the local context; (c) it is possible to include protection and spatial adaptation measures in the DAPP map but not soft measures (e.g. emergency planning) because it does not show a direct impact; (d) it is possible to integrate only one flooding sources, river or storm surge, but not both; and (e) the DAPP maps need to be explained by someone who knows the DAPP approach, which means specific expertise is needed.
A clear, shared vision is imperative. Adaptive planning needs a clear vision for the community area, city or country in question. At first, the municipalities had different ideas, but by discussion came up with a shared vision that enabled the prioritization of measures. Thus, the resilience of municipalities has increased because they have a more clear planning and better understanding of the constraints, the options and what decisions have to be made in the long term. Additionally, after FRAMES the local communities will be involved in decision-makings on how to decrease the flood risk for the municipalities
Integrate adaptive planning into flood risk management plans. Municipalities should get ownership of this approach and engage on flood risk issues with their local politicians. The most efficient way to accomplish this, would be to integrate the DAPP method into the current flood risk management plans. In Vejle and Assens, it was therefore recommended to use the DAPP approach when the municipalities have to adjust their flood risk management plans as issued by the EU Floods Directive. This in turn, requires expertise of the DAPP approach and MLS to guide municipalities through the process.