Layer 2- Spatial adaptation
Layer 2 focuses on avoidance of negative consequences of flooding by pro-active spatial planning or land use policies (“keeping people away from water”), aimed at building only outside areas that are prone to flooding. If you click here you can read more about layer 2.
Listed below are the tools used in layer 2 by the FRAMES pilots. When available, we provide links to documents or external sites where the tool is explained in more detail.
|Name of tool||Main objective||Description||Applied in pilot|
|ClimateJust||Aid in developing socially just responses to the impacts of flooding||Free web tool, developed by the World Health Organization, that considers the most recent scientific evidence on the health impacts of climate change.||Kent has adapted this tool to fit their situation. Kent shared this tool with partners locally and transnationally to support them in developing their own solutions.|
|Cost-benefit Analysis (CBA)||Quantification of spatial measures.||An economic technique applied to public decision−making that attempts to quantify the advantages (benefits) and disadvantages (costs) associated with, in this case, potential spatial measures.||Reimerswaal|
|Decision Support System for MLS||This tool provides insight in MLS resilience measures and how these possibly influence other systems.||HZ University integrated the findings from all the FRAMES pilots and identified policy actions to support the development of diversified strategies for flood resilience.||Results from all FRAMES pilots were integrated into this tool|
|Vitale Assets tool||Measuring (in)direct effects of floods on vital infrastructure.||This method and tool supports professionals in determining direct and indirect effects of floods on certain vital infrastructure, social systems or the impact on an area as a whole. It can be combined with GIS modelling.
Developed by the RAAK Consortium (2017-2018): HZ University of Applied Sciences, Province of Zeeland, Reimerswaal, Safety region Zeeland, Rijkswaterstaat Zee & Delta, Waterschap Schelde¬stromen Deltares.
|Critical Infrastructures: Relations and Consequences for Life and Environment (Circle)||Identification of cascade-effects of flood scenarios on critical infrastructure.||The Circle tool, developed by Deltares, identifies cascade-effects of flood scenarios on critical infrastructure. This tool can be used during collaborative modelling and workshops; a workshop guideline is freely available online.||Reimerswaal|
|Risk label method||Impact assessment: map the risks of electricity assets.||The Risk label method is a hazard-risk based approach used to analyse/map the risk of electricity assets in case of a flooding considering direct and indirect failure (cascading effects) of the medium-voltage network. Developed by Nelen & Schuurmans, a consultancy firm and results were discussed and validated during workshops with electricity gridexperts (Enduris, Evides, KPN and Delta) of the Flood Proof Electricity Grid pilot.||Electricity Grid Zeeland|
|Community based approach / participation approach||Collect data with emphasis on participation from the community.||Approach to include those (potentially) affected as key partners in developing strategies related to their assistance and protection.||Electricity Grid Zeeland, Denderleeuw, Geraardsbergen, Ninove, Assens, Roskilde, Velje|
|Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways approach (DAPP approach)||Use when developing adaptive plans for the future.||"The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach aims to support the development of an adaptive plan that is able to deal with conditions of deep uncertainties. "||Assens and Vejle applied an adapted version of this tool|
|Dynamic Planning Approach||Use to define and prioritize diverse flood risk management decisions related to flood protection, flood prevention via spatial planning and preparation and response.||When municipalities are taking decisions within different layers of the MLS approach, the Dynamic Planning approach could provide guidelines to prioritize these decisions.||Developed for the pilots of Assens and Vejle|
|Flood resilience rose (FRR)||Analyze resilience to flooding.||The Flood Resilience Rose developed by the University of Oldenburg is a self-assessment tool to analyze to systematically analyze and improve the resilience to flooding in an area through the implementation of the multi-layer safety approach.||Researchers from the University of Oldenburg analyzed all pilots using this tool|
|Multi-criteria analysis (MCA)||Measure impacts of policies.||“Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is a complementary approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA). It is a two-stage decision procedure. The first stage identifies a set of goals or objectives and then seeks to identify the trade-offs between those objectives for different policies or for different ways of achieving a given policy. The second stage seeks to identify the “best” policy by attaching weights (scores) to the various objectives.”||Vejle and Assens performed an MCA as part of their Dynamic Planning Approach|
|School programs to increase flood awareness||Self-assessment tools for community resilience + communication.||Increase the flood risk awareness of students, teachers and parents by visiting schools and playing educational games with the students.||Pilots in Belgium: Ninove, Geraardsbergen and Denderleeuw|
|GIS analysis of social characteristics||Exploration of different social vulnerability indicators.||Explore the social (in)justice to floods through an analysis of the social characteristics of the exposed populations by using a GIS-analysis of the spatial distribution of the different social vulnerability indicators.||All pilots in Belgium|
|Landelijk Informatiesysteem Water en Overstromingen (LIWO)||Information on water and floods in the Netherlands.||National information system Water and Floods (Landelijk Informatiesysteem Water en Overstromingen) consists of layers of maps. LIWO was developed specifically for Dutch professionals in preparation for excess of water and floods. Developed by Watermanagementcentrum Nederland (WMCN).||All pilots in the Netherlands|
|Research by design approach||Collect data with emphasis on participation from the community.||This approach aims at uniting flood-prone citizens, private stakeholders and local/supra-local public actors in roundtables in order to find cross-sectoral solutions to common challenges.||All pilots in Belgium|
|The Kent Strategic Health Asset Planning and Evaluation (SHAPE)||Map the socio-spatial flood risk of an area.||The 'Strategic Health Asset Planning and Evaluation', or SHAPE, is a web enabled, evidence based application that informs and supports the strategic planning of services and assets across a whole health economy. Its analytical and presentation feature
s can help service commissioners to determine the service configuration that provides the best affordable access to care.
|All pilots in the
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|The Story Map Cascade||Self-assessment tools for community resilience + dissemination + communication.||The Story Map Cascade, developed by ESRI, is a type of website which aims to make rich layers of geographical information easily accessible and useful to both professionals and the wider public. As such, it can help disseminate the results to a wider audience and ensure durability of results beyond the lifetime of the project.Story Map apps are open source.||Medway|
|Social media||Communication and dissemination.||To increase and improve the flood awareness and self-efficacy of citizens and organizations, social media channels are advised to be used: YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, local press (TV, newspaper, magazines, radio), websites, newsletters, brochures, leaflets, events and meetings.||All pilots|
|Stakeholder analysis||Identify all stakeholders in the area.||A stakeholder analysis will identify all actors along with their interests and potential issues who will have a role in MLS before engaging them in the process.||All pilots|
|Surveys||Collect data regarding perceptions and awareness of stakeholders.||Surveys collect data about the perceptions and level of awareness of inhabitants, stakeholders, policy makers and organisations about (perceived) flood risk, flood preparedness and flood recovery.||Butt Green Shield, Lustrum Beck, Roskilde, Wesermarsch, Sloe area|
|Vision and Action Plan||Use when developing adaptive plans for the future.||Vision and action plans can be developed to climate/flood proof the area/region with specific spatial adaptation measures.||All pilots in Belgium, Assens, Vejle|
|Workshops||Collect data from main stakeholders in the area.||Workshop for and with the main stakeholders of the area are organized. Each stakeholder provides information/ knowledge based on their expertise responsibility in flood risk management: crisis management, water management, technical knowledge (flood scenarios) and so on.||All pilots|
- Guide to dynamic planning Assens Vejle, Danish Coastal Authority, Danish Coastal Authority, 30 mei 2020.
- Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach, Deltares, Deltares, 16 juli 2019.
- Stakeholder analysis report FRAMES, FRAMES Consortium, 1 januari 2020.
- Increase flood awareness through a school program, Goosse, T., Ghent University, 1 november 2019.
- Flood Resilience Rose 2 pager for project and pilot coordinators, Klenke, T., B. Restemeyer and L. Karrasch, University of Oldenburg, 6 december 2018.