Layer 3- Preparedness and response
Layer 3 looks at how the consequences of floods can be mitigated by preparing for adequate responses to a flood event. Measures include flood warning systems, disaster management and evacuation/rescue plans, and managing a flood when it occurs by taking last call emergency measures (e.g. sand bags). If you click here you can read more about layer 3.
Listed below are the tools used in layer 3 by the FRAMES pilots. When available, we provide links to documents or external sites where the tool is explained in more detail.
|Name of tool||Main objective||Description||Applied in pilot|
|Climate Change Risk and Impact Assessment (CCRiA)||Assessment of climate risk.||A tool to better understand the impacts of climate change on key sectors and motivate action. To this end, the KCC has reviewed the existing UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA).||Kent|
|Decision Support System (DSS) for MLS||This tool provides insight in MLS resilience measures and how these possibly influence other systems.||HZ University integrated the findings from all the FRAMES pilots and identified policy actions to support the development of diversified strategies for flood resilience.||Results from all FRAMES pilots were integrated into this tool|
|Community based approach / participation approach||Collect data with emphasis on participation from the community.||Approach to include those (potentially) affected as key partners in developing strategies related to their assistance and protection.||Electricity Grid Zeeland, Denderleeuw, Geraardsbergen, Ninove, Assens, Roskilde, Velje|
|Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach||Use when developing adaptive plans for the future.||The Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP) approach, developed by Deltares and TU Delft, aims to support the development of an adaptive plan that is able to deal with conditions of deep uncertainties.||All pilots in Denmark, Assens, Vejle and Roskilde, applied an adapted version of this tool.|
|Evacuation traffic model||Impact assessment||Rijkswaterstaat has developed this model. It can be used by local authorities to make decisions about their evacuation plans.||Sloe area, Flood proof electricity grid Zeeland, Reimerswaal|
|Flood resilience rose (FRR)||Analyze resilience to flooding.||The Flood Resilience Rose developed by the University of Oldenburg is a self-assessment tool to analyze to systematically analyze and improve the resilience to flooding in an area through the implementation of the multi-layer safety approach.||Researchers from the University of Oldenburg analyzed all pilots using this tool|
|Interviews with stakeholders||Collect data from stakeholders in the area.||Interviewing stakeholders can result in more specific insights on their knowledge, perceptions, views and opinions on specific flood risk measures.||Roskilde, Sloe area, Wesemarsch|
|Landelijk Informatiesysteem Water en Overstromingen (LIWO)||Information on water and floods in the Netherlands.||National information system Water and Floods (Landelijk Informatiesysteem Water en Overstromingen) consists of layers of maps.
LIWO was developed specifically for Dutch professionals in preparation for excess of water and floods. Developed by Watermanagementcentrum Nederland (WMCN).
|Mobile app, for instance Katwarn||Risk communication.||A mobile application (app) can be used as a Flood Threat Warning App and for instance include full integration within the risk communication program of the region. The app could also include other identified natural risks of the area such as fires, droughts and extreme weather events.||Sloe area, Reimerswaal, Flood Proof Electricity grid Zeeland, Wesermarsch|
|Multi-criteria analysis (MCA)||Measure impacts of policies.||“Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is a complementary approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA). It is a two-stage decision procedure. The first stage identifies a set of goals or objectives and then seeks to identify the trade-offs between those objectives for different policies or for different ways of achieving a given policy. The second stage seeks to identify the “best” policy by attaching weights (scores) to the various objectives.”||Vejle and Assens performed an MCA as part of their adjusted DAPP approach|
|Research by design approach||Collect data with emphasis on participation from the community.||This approach aims at uniting flood-prone citizens, private stakeholders and local/supra-local public actors in roundtables in order to find cross-sectoral solutions to common challenges.||All pilots in Belgium|
|Risk label method||Impact assessment: map the risks of electricity assets.||The Risk label method is a hazard-risk based approach used to analyse/map the risk of electricity assets in case of a flooding considering direct and indirect failure (cascading effects) of the medium-voltage network. Developed by Nelen & Schuurmans, a consultancy firm. Results were discussed and validated during workshops with electricity gridexperts (Enduris, Evides, KPN and Delta) of the Flood Proof Electricity Grid pilot.||Electricity Grid Zeeland|
|School programs to increase flood awareness||Self-assessment tools for community resilience + communication.||Increase the flood risk awareness of students, teachers and parents by visiting schools and playing educational games with the students.||Pilots in Belgium: Ninove, Geraardsbergen and Denderleeuw|
|Social media||Communication and dissemination.||To increase and improve the flood awareness and self-efficacy of citizens and organizations, social media channels are advised to be used: YouTube Twitter, Facebook, local press (TV, newspaper, magazines, radio), websites, newsletters, brochures, leaflets, events and meetings.||All pilots|
|Severe Weather Impacts Monitoring System (SWIMS)||Self-assessment tools for community resilience.||The Severe Weather Impacts Monitoring System (SWIMS) allows Kent partners to collect data about how the services provided them are affected during severe weather events. This in turn will allow the identification of key areas and communities that are affected by flooding and other severe weather events and improve the management of those areas in line with MLS principles. It is a decision support and public tool for public organizations in emergency planning events.
SWIMS is available in the UK to local a
uthorities through the Climate Ready programme (in partnership with the Environment Agency, De
fra, LGA and
|Kent improved this tool and is investigating the possibility of a wider roll-out as well as international use and expansion outside the emergency organization.
Kent shared this tool with partners locally and transnationally to support them in developing their own solutions.
|Stakeholder analysis||Identify all stakeholders in the area.||A stakeholder analysis will identify all actors along with their interests and potential issues who will have a role in MLS before engaging them in the process.||All pilots|
|Surveys||Collect data regarding perceptions and awareness of stakeholders.||Surveys collect data about the perceptions and level of awareness of inhabitants, stakeholders, policy makers and organisations about (perceived) flood risk, flood preparedness and flood recovery.||Butt Green Shield, Lustrum Beck, Roskilde, Wesermarsch, Sloe area|
|Story Map Cascade||Self-assessment tools for community resilience, dissemination and communication.||The Story Map Cascade, developed by ESRI, is a type of website which aims to make rich layers of geographical information easily accessible and useful to both professionals and the wider public. As such, it can help disseminate the results to a wider audience and ensure durability of results beyond the lifetime of the project.
Story Map apps are open source.
|Workshops||Collect data from main stakeholders in the area.||Workshop for and with the main stakeholders of the area are organized. Each stakeholder provides information/ knowledge based on their expertise responsibility in flood risk management: crisis management, water management, technical knowledge (flood scenarios) and so on.||All pilots|
- Stakeholder analysis report FRAMES, FRAMES Consortium, 1 januari 2020.
- Increase flood awareness through a school program, Goosse, T., Ghent University, 1 november 2019.
- Flood Resilience Rose 2 pager for project and pilot coordinators, Klenke, T., B. Restemeyer and L. Karrasch, University of Oldenburg, 6 december 2018.
- LIWO, LIWO, 17 april 2020.
- Risk label method EN, Nelen, Nelen, 11 juli 2020.