!!! De schuingedrukte tekst hieronder bevat veel speciale tekens die we zelf moeten gaan toevoegen (zie PDF met dezelfde tekst als hieronder):

A second-order observer observing himself as a first-order observer leads to a paradox. As a second-order observer, you see both sides of the distinction, including your own blind spot, which is then no blind spot anymore. Again, this paradox is, as usual by now, de-paradoxified in time. First of all, every observer does have a blind spot regardless whether a first-order or second-order observer position is taken. In the very act of observing, you see only one side of a distinction. What you see as a second-observer observing yourself is what you once was in relation to the world.

The distinction  is re-entered in its own identical space. But the re-entered mark of distinction has become a mark that cannot be crossed anymore. The past is the past, and there is nothing you can do about it. The distinction is taken as an indivisible whole indicating your actions and the resulting reactions of the world in the past.

Statement: Concentrate on how to look, instead of what to see.

Statement page Aspect Statement
Blind Spots Critical Reflection You need someone else to point out your blind spots to you.
Determining Boundary Judgements with CSH Critical Reflection A constructive dialog can take place on the basis of first and second order boundary judgments.
Self-observation Critical Reflection Concentrate on how to look, instead of what to see.
Figure: first and second order observation.

Incidentally, by conceptualizing self-reflection as a second-order observation observing yourself, it becomes clear that history does matter. Things done in the past shape present and future actions. As Gadamer argues, we cannot escape tradition (cite{Truth and Methods}). Tradition is overarching, which also holds for applying the scientific method in human sciences. To put it bluntly, the scientific method objectifies the present but without taking into consideration what we used to do and why, that is, our tradition. But tradition cannot be brushed away from human life, and that, ironically, applies for the way we conduct scientific research as well because the scientific method itself evolves in time due to new insights. Thus tradition is overarching, but it also evolves.

Lees hiervoor: Blind Spots
Lees hierna: Critical Systems Thinking